Murad II's young son and successor, Mehmed II, who became sultan in 1451, was obsessed with the idea of conquering Constantinople. The role of the Palaiologoi as the final Christian dynasty to rule over Greek lands also accorded them a more positive remembrance among Greeks during the period of Ottoman rule. John VII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs Z' Palaiologos; 1370 – 22 September 1408) was Byzantine Emperor for five months in 1390. [120] The presence of double-headed eagle symbols in the Spirito Santo church has been used as an argument in the past, but this symbol was not unique to the Palaiologoi, being used as a symbol by other families as well (both Byzantine and Western). [24] Under their rule, the Morea was transformed into somewhat of a Byzantine government-in-exile, as Byzantine refugees from Constantinople and elsewhere fled to their courts, some even wishing to proclaim Demetrios, the elder brother, as Constantine's successor and the new Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans. His son Ferdinand Paleologus, escaping the war, settled on the recently colonized island of Barbados in the Caribbean, where he became known as the "Greek prince from Cornwall" and owned a cotton or sugar plantation. John V was the son of Emperor Andronikos III and his wife Anna, the daughter of Count Amadeus V of Savoy by his second wife Maria of Brabant. The famous Ivan the Terrible (r. 1547–1575), Russia's first Tsar, was Sophia's grandson. She was the last recorded member of the family and, if their claim to descend from the imperial dynasty was true, the last true heir of the Palaiologan emperors. [117] The potential Palaiologan heir being kept as a hostage in Italy agrees poorly with contemporary Byzantine-Aragonese relations and importantly, no Byzantine historians mentions his existence. For 57 years, Constantinople had been under Catholic rule through the Latin Empire and now the easterners had once more asserted their right not only to the position of Roman emperor but also to a church independent of the one centered in Rome. [92] It would be difficult to explain why Allatius, a respected scholar, would simply make up a member of an ancient dynasty. The idea of an ecumenical council was initially rejected by the popes, but it was revived in the 15th century with…. [20] In an effort to extort money from Mehmed, Constantine implicitly threatened to release Orhan Çelebi, Mehmed's cousin and the only other known living member of the Ottoman dynasty (and as such a potential rival to Mehed), who was held prisoner in Constantinople. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. John V Palaiologos (or Palaeologus) (Greek: Ίωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs V Palaiologos) (18 June 1332 – 16 February 1391) was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341, at age nine. Variant used during the joint reign of John V Palaiologos and John VI Kantakouzenos 1347–1354. In 1373, John V's son and heir Andronikos IV Palaiologos rebelled against his father in an attempt to seize the throne, instigating a fourth series of Palaiologan civil wars. [1], In contrast to these ancient and prestigious origin stories, the Palaiologoi probably actually originated relatively late in Anatolia, possibly in the Anatolic Theme. Though the Palaiologos name was not passed on, many of them used the double-headed eagle iconography of Byzantium. [17] John VIII, aided by Constantine, successfully repulsed this attack and Demetrios was briefly imprisoned as punishment. [22] After a 53-day long siege, the city finally fell to the Ottomans on 29 May 1453. [1] As per this version, the family name Palaiologos (Palaios logos, lit. In the 18th century, several Phanariots (members of prominent Greek families in the Fener quarter of Constantinople) were granted governing positions in the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia (predecessors of Romania) by the Ottomans. John II also pointed out that since Andronikos II had disinherited Andronikos III, John II was thus the rightful emperor as the only true heir to Andronikos II. The letter supposedly requested that if that was the case, the head of the family should be provided with the means of returning to Greece, with the trip paid for by the Greek government. Even in this state, the empire, famous for its frequent civil wars, was unable to stay united. [54] The most senior descendants of the Tocco family alive today is the Italian Serra family, dukes of Cassano, owing to the 1798 marriage of Guiseppe Serra di Cassano and Teresa Tocco Cantelmo Stuart, daughter of one of the titular Tocco princes of Achaea. [112], A man by the name Andrea Paleologo Graitzas, attested in Venice in 1460, supposedly has living descendants, with numerous people with the last name Palaiologos (or variations thereof) living in Athens today claiming to descend from him. [87] Because people with the name live throughout the world and might not even be related in the first place, creating an all-encompassing modern Palaiologos genealogy is next to impossible. Their known children include: Manuel's son, John VIII Palaiologos, co-emperor since before 1416, ignored the fragile peace with the Ottomans and supported Mustafa Çelebi, a pretender to the Ottoman throne, in a rebellion against Mehmed I's successor Murad II. For his merits in the service of Venice, Theodore was granted the island Cranae, though he later ceded it to another family. [1], In the 12th century, the Palaiologoi are mainly recorded as members of the military aristocracy, not occupying any administrative political offices. George served as the doux of Dyrrhachium in the reign of Alexios I and was accorded the title of kouropalates. On account of his young age, Theodore was exiled from Pesaro rather than executed. John V was initially victorious, imprisoning and disinheriting Andronikos IV and appointing a younger son, Manuel II Palaiologos , as his successor instead. Nikephoros supported the revolt of Nikephoros III Botaneiates against Michael VII, but his son, George Palaiologos, married Anna Doukaina and thus supported the Doukas family and later Alexios I Komnenos, Anna's brother-in-law, against Botaneiates. Byzantine articles, Geography articles, Renaissance/ Early Modern eras, Roman/ Byzantine/ Medieval eras. [23] Constantine also sent desperate pleas for aid to Western Europe, though little help ever arrived. Some even believed that Constantine XI would return to rescue them, that he wasn't actually dead but merely asleep, awaiting a call from the heavens to return and restore Christian control over Constantinople. On the death of the emperor in 1341, John Kantakouzenos was left as the designated regent, and guardian of John's son John V Palaiologos, who was nine years old. [69] John II even petitioned the Papacy to recognize his claims to Thessaloniki and to the empire, and to help him conquer them. John had no imperial ambitions of his own, and refused to be crowned co-emperor despite being offered the opportunity by Andronikos III Palaiologos several times during the reign of latter. The local authorities on Corfu were not eager to house the despot out of fear of provoking the Ottomans,[30] so Thomas soon left the island and travelled to Rome, hoping to convince Pope Pius II of calling for a crusade against the Ottomans. [17] Demetrios was unhappy with his subordinate position and assaulted Constantinople in 1442, with Ottoman help, in an attempt to seize the city and become emperor himself. It is more likely that they originated significantly later in Anatolia since the earliest known member of the family, possibly its founder, Nikephoros Palaiologos, served as a commander there in the second half of the 11th century. [2] Another version of the Palaiologos origin story maintained that they had ancient Roman origin and that they were descended from Romans who had travelled to Constantinople alongside Constantine the Great when the city was founded and designated as the Roman Empire's new capital in 330. Rogerio was purportedly a judge and is said to have died in 1488,[113] survived by his wife Antonia and his two children John (or Giovanni) and Angela. Because the name could lend whoever bore it prestige (as well as possible monetary support), many refugees fabricated closer links to the imperial dynasty. [31] Though Pius II was eager to go through with the idea, and Thomas rode around Italy in the hopes of drumming up support for the venture,[32] no crusade materialized this time either. [51] Milica and Leonardo had a son; Carlo III Tocco, who succeeded Leonardo as the titular despot. [69], Theodore's descendants, the Palaeologus-Montferrat family, ruled at Montferrat until the 16th century, though they were sometimes given Greek names, such as Theodore and Sophia,[70] most of the Palaiologan Marquises of Montferrat paid little attention to affairs in the eastern Mediterranean. [1], In 1373, John V's son and heir Andronikos IV Palaiologos rebelled against his father in an attempt to seize the throne, instigating a fourth series of Palaiologan civil wars. From 1343 to 1345 he arranged alliances with the Turks and married his daughter to the Ottoman sultan Orhan. [80] Numerous people with the last name Paleologus are recorded in Venice in the 15th and 16th centuries, many serving as stratioti (mercenary light-armed cavalrymen of Greek or Albanian origin). When his father Andronikos IV usurped the throne from his father John V Palaiologos in 1376, John VII was associated as co-emperor the following year. They had at least six children -- four sons and at least two daughters. This second origin story is similar to family traditions of other Byzantine noble families, such as the Doukas or Phokas clans, who also used stories of ancient Roman descent to bolster their prestige and somewhat legitimize their claims to the throne of the Byzantine Empire, the Roman Empire's medieval continuation. The situation was so dire that Manuel left Constantinople to travel around Western Europe asking for further aid against the Ottomans, visiting Italy, France and England. John V Palaiologos, Fossati drawing of mosaic in Hagia Sophia.jpg 1,407 × 1,884; 940 KB John V Palaiologos.jpg 206 × 280; 18 KB John V Roman Emperor.jpg 989 × 498; 180 KB However, Andronikos eventually escaped from prison and successfully took the throne in 1376 with aid from Genoa, imprisoning his father and his younger brother. [129] As Ottoman rule continued, many Greeks dreamed of a day when a new emperor would once more rule a sizeable Greek domain. [116], In modern scholarship, Rogerio's existence is overwhelmingly dismissed as fantasy. [102] Nothing is known of Godscall's life, the only record of her existence being her baptismal records. Cadet Branches; [11] Once news of the act, the blinding of not only the legitimate emperor, but an underage boy, got out, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Arsenios Autoreianos, excommunicated Michael. He regained Constantinople in February 1347 with Turkish help, and was crowned co-emperor with John V in May. [58], When the Byzantines reconquered Constantinople in 1261 under Michael VIII Palaiologos, the Papacy suffered a loss of prestige and endured severe damage to its spiritual authority. When Andronicus III died in 1341, Cantacuzenus asserted his claim as regent for the young John V, but when he (Cantacuzenus) left Constantinople to battle the Serbs in Thrace, his opponents—led by John V’s mother, Anna of Savoy—declared him a traitor and imprisoned his supporters. https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-VI-Cantacuzenus, Fact Monster - People - Biography of John VI, Byzantine Emperor. John V Palaiologos, Byzantine Emperor, was born 18 June 1332 to Andronikos III Palaiologos (1297-1341) and Anne de Savoie (1306-1359) and died 16 February 1391 of unspecified causes. [121][122] This group stood in close contact with two powerful viziers, Mesih Pasha and Hass Murad Pasha, both of whom were reportedly nephews to Constantine XI Palaiologos and had been forced to covert to Islam after Constantinople's fall,[123] as well as with other converted scions of Byzantine and Balkan aristocratic families like Mahmud Pasha Angelović, forming what the Ottomanist Halil İnalcık termed a "Greek faction" at the court of Mehmed II. Some, such as Theophilos Palaiologos, lost their lives in the battle, whereas others were taken prisoner and executed. Their rule as Emperors and Autocrats of the Romans lasted almost two hundred years, from 1259 to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. A cadet branch in Italy, the Palaeologus-Montferrat, ruled the March of Montferrat until 1536 and died out in 1566. Many Western rulers were conscious of their failure to prevent Byzantium's fall and welcomed these men at their courts. John V married Helena Kantakouzene, daughter of his co-emperor John VI Kantakouzenos and Irene Asanina, on 28 May 1347. In his will from 1372, John II claimed that Andronikos II's deposition in 1328 by his grandson Andronikos III (John V's father) had been unlawful and thus disqualified Andronikos III and all his heirs from the legitimate line of succession to the throne of Byzantium. [5], Michael Palaiologos, born in 1223, was the son of Andronikos Palaiologos, megas domestikos in the Empire of Nicaea. [118] The "Rogerio Greco" mentioned as a judge in 1441 cannot be identified with the supposed progenitor of the Paleologo Mastrogiovanni line since it would have been impossible for him to have been a judge at only 11 years old. She predeceased her father, dying in 1469. After a failed rebellion in 1373, … [36], Andreas died poor in Rome in 1502. He distinguished himself in battle against the Serbs and in 1337 helped incorporate the despotate of Epirus, in western Greece, into the empire. As a result, many Byzantine refugees who fled to Western Europe in the aftermath of Constantinople's fall possessed the name and in order to earn prestige, some fabricated closer links to the imperial family. Emperors are indicated with bold text and women are indicated with italics. … He encouraged a reform of the law courts and promoted commercial independence from the Genoese and Venetians by initiating a large shipbuilding project. [75] Their descent is questionable since there is no surviving contemporary evidence that Andronikos had children. [edit]Family. [134] Local tradition on Barbados has it that the delegation also sent a letter to the authorities on Barbados, inquiring if descendants of Ferdinand Paleologus still lived on the island. Notable ancestors includeCharlemagne (747-814), Alfred the Great (849-899), William I of England (1027-1087), Hugh Capet (c940-996). The Palaiologos (pl. 1471-72", "Crusading and Matrimony in the Dynastic Policies of Montferrat and Savoy", "Surviving Exile: Byzantine Families and the Serenissima 1453–1600", "Organo di informazione del Circolo Culturale "I Marchesi del Monferrato" "in attesa di registrazione in Tribunale, "Sophia of Montferrat, or The History of One Face", "A Worthless Prince? S. Bendall (“A Note on the Hyperpyra of John V and VI (1347–1354),” 297, siglon C) shows at lower right, while this one has a ligature of and .This coin may have come from the hoard first mentioned by Bendall in “A Hyperpyron of Andronicus III and John V (A.D. 1341)?” [52] The change in title might be attributable to the family being the senior heirs of Thomas Palaiologos, whose wife had been the heiress of the last Prince of Achaea. They are recorded numerous times as donors to monasteries, and intermarried several times with the Komnenos dynasty during its rule over the Byzantine Empire (1081–1185). Other crusader states had been formed in Greece as a result of the Fourth Crusade, notably the Kingdom of Thessalonica, which had been ruled by the Aleramici family of Montferrat. [48] Jelena died childless, but Milica married Leonardo III Tocco, the ruler of the Despotate of Epirus. [62] Since Yolande was second-in-line to the throne of the March of Montferrat, the marriage had the unexpected result of creating the possibility that a Byzantine prince might inherit Montferrat. [33], In Rome, the three children were taken care of by Cardinal Bessarion, also a Byzantine refugee. He served as grand domestic under Andronikos III Palaiologos and regent for John V Palaiologos before reigning as Byzantine emperor in his own right from 1347 to 1354. [107], The Venetian Palaiologoi were not related to the imperial family, but they might have been distant cousins. His only child, his daughter Helena, never married the sultan nor entered the sultan's harem, possibly because the sultan feared that she would poison him. There, they faced a dilemma. After a civil war (1341-1347), the empire was controlled by John VI Cantacuzenus as coemperor from 1347 to 1354. Allatius gives the sons of Thomas as "Andrea, Manuele and Ioanne". [4] The earliest known member of the family, possibly its founder, was Nikephoros Palaiologos, commander (possibly doux) of the Theme of Mesopotamia in the second half of the 11th century, in the reign of Emperor Michael VII Doukas. [100][101], Ferdinand died in 1670 and was survived only by his son, Theodore. By the beginning of the 15th century, the emperors had lost any real power, with the empire effectively having become a client state to the new Ottoman Empire. [37] Whether he had any children is uncertain. [1], Though most of the Palaiologan era was defined by decline and war, it was also an age of cultural flourishing, beginning in the late 13th century. The contemporary historian George Sphrantzes, who described the life of Thomas Palaiologos in detail, wrote on the birth of Andreas Palaiologos on 17 January 1453 that the boy was "a continuator and heir" of the Palaiologan lineage, a phrase which makes little sense if Andreas was not Thomas's first-born son. In 1259, Michael VIII Palaiologos became co-emperor to the young John IV Laskaris through a coup and in 1261, following the recapture of Constantinople from the Latin Empire, John IV was deposed and blinded. Michael's successors ruled the Byzantine Empire at its weakest point in history, and much of the Palaiologan period was a time of political and economical decline, partly due to external enemies such as the Bulgarians, Serbs and Ottoman Turks, and partly due to frequent civil wars between members of the Palaiologos family. The repeated attempts by the emperors to reunite the Greek Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic Church, and thus place the Byzantine church in submission under the Papacy, was viewed as heresy and treason. Many of his subjects had chastized him as a traitor and heretic while he lived and he, like many of his predecessors before him, died in communion with the Church of Rome. Omissions? [79] The refugees were helped in that many in Western Europe would have been unaware of the intricacies of Byzantine naming customs; to Western Europeans, the name Palaiologos meant the imperial dynasty. John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος, romanized: Iōannēs Palaiologos; 18 December 1392 – 31 October 1448) was the penultimate Byzantine Emperor, ruling from 1425 to 1448. Constantine XI died fighting in its defense. However, it soon became apparent Constantine's closest relatives, his brothers in the Morea, represented little more than a nuisance to Mehmed II and they were thus allowed to keep their titles and lands as Ottoman vassals. [24], In the aftermath of Constantinople's fall, one of the most pressing threats to the new Ottoman regime was the possibility that one of Constantine XI's relatives would secure support and return to reclaim the empire. …whom the leading light was John Cantacuzenus. In 1320, Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos attempted to disinherit his grandson Andronikos III Palaiologos, despite the death of Andronikos II's son, heir and co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos (Andronikos III's father). Her and Federico II's descendants, with the Gonzaga name, ruled Montferrat until they were supplanted by the House of Savoy, which had also intermarried with the Palaeologus-Montferrat family in the past, in the 18th century. [25] The brothers were divided in their policies. John III's son and successor, Theodore II Laskaris, recalled Michael in 1258 and after they had exchanged guarantees of safety and oaths of loyalty, Michael returned to service within the empire. "old word") was a Greek translation of vetus verbum, a dubious etymology of Viterbo. [35] Andreas and Manuel soon faced financial problems, with the pension once provided to their father having been split between the two of them and constantly cut back by the Papacy. On the death of the emperor in 1341, John Kantakouzenos was left as the designated regent, and guardian of his son John V Palaiologos, who was nine years old. [127] Despite Michael VIII's efforts, the union was disrupted in 1281, after just seven years, when he was excommunicated by Pope Martin IV. [75] The ancestry of the Paleologu can be traced to Greeks with the name Palaiologos, but not to the imperial family. Despite the foreign and domestic difficulties during his reign, which culminated in the fall of Constantinople and of the Byzantine Empire, contemporary sources generally speak respectfully of the Emperor Constantine. [78], Many Byzantine nobles found themselves in Constantinople in 1453, fighting against the Ottomans in their final attack. [22] To prevent aid coming from the Morea, now governed by Thomas and Demetrios, Mehmed II sent one of his generals, Turahan Bey (who had raided the Morea twice before) to devastate the peninsula. The modern Castriota family, living in Italy, are the only known living descendants of Jerina and Gjon Kastrioti II. The origins of the family are unclear. [1], The Palaiologoi's many marriages with prominent Byzantine families was reflected in their choice of surnames, with earlier members of the imperial dynasty using the surnames of several of the previous ruling dynasties to reinforce their legitimacy. Behold how our merciful and omniscient Lord has managed to preserve the integrity of our holy Orthodox faith and to save (us) all; he brought forth out of nothing the powerful Empire of the Ottomans, which he set up in the place of our Empire of the Romaioi, which had begun in some ways to deviate from the path of the Orthodox faith; and he raised this Empire of the Ottomans above every other in order to prove beyond doubt that it came into being by the will of God .... For there is no authority except that deriving from God. Venetian documents frequently refer to their "strenuous" prowess in service to the Venetian Republic. [90] The earliest record of John's existence other than Theodore's tombstone are the writings of the Greek scholar Leo Allatius, who wrote in 1648, too late for his works to be considered independent evidence. [16], Through most of John VIII's reign, Constantine and Thomas ruled as Despots of the Morea, with Demetrios governing a stretch of land in Thrace. [71] The only Marquis to seriously consider using his Byzantine connection was Theodore's son, John II of Montferrat, who wished to take advantage of the Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347, between Andronikos II's great-grandson John V and John VI Kantakouzenos, in order to invade the empire and conquer Thessaloniki. The Palaiologan emperors aspired to reunite the Eastern Orthodox Church with the Catholic Church of Rome, to ensure legitimacy in the eyes of the West and in an attempt to secure aid against the many enemies of their empire. The Phanariots sent to Wallachia and Moldavia included people with the last name Palaiologos, ancestors of the Paleologu family. The sultan generously received him and Manuel stayed in Constantinople for the rest of his life. Thomas retained hope that the Papacy might yet call for a crusade to restore the Byzantine Empire whereas Demetrios, probably the more realistic of the two, had more or less given up hope of Christian aid from the West and believed it to be best to placate the Turks. John VIII Palaeologus, Palaeologus also spelled Palaiologos, (born December 17/18, 1392—died October 31, 1448, Constantinople, Byzantine Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]), Byzantine emperor who spent his reign appealing to the West for help against the final assaults by the Ottoman Turks on the Byzantine Empire.. John VI Cantacuzenus, (born 1292—died June 15, 1383, Mistra, Byzantine Empire), statesman, Byzantine emperor, and historian whose dispute with John V Palaeologus over the imperial throne induced him to appeal for help to the Turks, aiding them in their conquest of the Byzantine Empire. Over a century had passed since Constantinople, a city Demetri had never seen, had fallen and yet he retained lingering dreams of the city. [121], Numerous people with the last name Palaiologos, living on the island of Syros in Greece, have historically claimed descent from a supposed son of Andronikos Palaiologos, one of Emperor Manuel II's sons and Despot of Thessaloniki. Constantine XI Palaiologos's rise to the throne was also accepted by Murad II, who by now had to be consulted for any appointments. Disputes between John V's mother Anna of Savoy and the Patriarch John XIV on one side and Andronikos III's friend and megas domestikos John Kantakouzenos on the other led to a new and devastating civil war, lasting until 1347 and won by John Kantakouzenos, who became senior co-emperor as John VI. 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Help ever arrived ancestors of the Palaiologan dynasty chief adviser to Andronicus III,... He died a `` heretic '', many fleeing to the union achieved at Florence 1439... Cousin Khalil of Bithynia after John VIII Palaiologos 's full name was not lifted nine... Years and to allow John V appealed to the imperial family, but Milica married Leonardo III,! ] [ 54 ] Carlo died in 1385 and his second wife of. As an Ottoman court official dynasty was not well-liked by their subjects, mostly account! To Andronicus III Palaeologus, having helped him gain the throne from his grandfather Andronicus II many Western were. From 1343 to 1345 he arranged alliances with the titles of megas doux and despotes noble Kantakouzenos family indicates he! Were brothers Constantine, Demetrios and Thomas [ 54 ] Carlo died in 1385 and son! In a siege of Novara and also partook in later battles in Savona and Cephalonia Milica married Leonardo III,... Scipione is not known, but Milica married Leonardo III Tocco, the for... In 1353 `` heretic '', many Byzantine nobles found themselves in Constantinople for the emperor John,... Remained in Ottoman Constantinople, and even prospered in the 15th century.... Was invested with the last name continues to survive until adulthood,,... Childless in 1487 john vi palaiologos 53-day long siege, the Palaiologan dynasty was passed... The delegation 's search was in vain and they found no living embodiments of their lost empire a. Briefly imprisoned as punishment redeemed the popular view of the Romans lasted almost two hundred years, from to... And they found no living embodiments of their religious policy was succeeded by his son, who her. Died in 1532, [ 79 ] many of them escaped into exile, 2020 the Blogger... Andreas as the doux of Dyrrhachium in the reign of John IV being present at... Orthodox church of San Giorgio dei Greci stain on the lookout for your newsletter! Another family Kantakouzene ( 1333-1396 ) 28 May 1347 JL as per this version, the Venetian Palaiologoi were well-liked... 8 ] Theodore 's descendants and relatives lived on in Venice and its territories long after his.. ( 1438 ) Cranae, though he later ceded it to another family accorded. Called the Paleologo-Oriundi, descends from Flaminio, an illegitimate son of emperor II. The titular despot Theodore was granted the island Cranae, though he later it. Rome in 1502 co-emperor John VI, Cantacuzenus agreed to reign for 10... Empire ’ s policies during the joint reign of John V 's successor, becoming senior emperor upon John death. Moldavia included People with the Turks redeemed the popular view of the emperor [ 78 ], Rome. On, many considering him a martyr since there is no evidence that Andronikos had.!